Felt is made by a process called wet felting where the natural fibres, stimulated by friction and lubricated by moisture (usually soapy water), move at a 90 degree angle towards the friction source and then away again, in effect making little "tacking" stitches. While at any given moment only 5% of the fibres are active, the process is continual, so different 'sets' of fibres become activated and then deactivated, thereby building up the cloth.
This "wet" process takes advantage of the inherent nature of wool and other animal hairs. The hairs are made up of unidirectional scales, and they are also naturally kinked. It is this combination which reacts to the friction of the felting process, forcing the scales on the hairs to lock together and thus causing the phenomenon of felting. It tends to work well with wool fibres because their scales, when aggravated, readily bond together.
It is also possible to produce artificial felts. If made using the wet method, an artificial felt will contain a minimum of 30% wool fibres with the rest being artificial fibres. This is the minimum composition necessary to hold a fabric together with the fibres alone; it would be difficult to form a stable fabric by hand below this ratio. Wholly artificial felts are actually needle-felts (see below).
An alternative felting process involves a steam roller rolling over the unwoven fibres in a shallow pool of water with the cloth as the steam roller passes over it. This method is widely used in small towns in India where mass manufacturing of clothing is performed.
(Source - Wikipedia)
Hand washing is the most recommended for proper felt care. Low temperature water with mild detergent, reduced agitation followed by same temperature rinse is the best way to take care of your felt garment. Once washing is complete lightly squeeze out the water, and pat dry with a towel. To regain original shape please iron while still wet on low temperature setting for wool or silk. Lay flat to dry. Once dry your felt is ready to wear.
Due to the nature of wool, pilling sometimes occurs and is normal for felt garment. To remove pilling use raisor to gently shave off exccess wool pilling or lint shaver. It will only take a little time to bring your felt to it's original state.